Secular and religious poetry in the 16th century
Several protestant educated poets, such as Guillaume du Bartas (1544-1590) and Jean de Sponde (1557-1595), but mainly Clément Marot (1496-1544),belong the new fruitful generation of court poets around Marguerite de Navarre. But as soon as the Reformation was implanted in France, their inspiration became deeply religious and they expressed their faith in spite of the hardships they were to bear. The translation of psalms by Clément Marot and Théodore de Bèze was a significant example.
The horrors during the Wars of Religion inspired a genius, the poet Agrippa d’Aubigné (1552-1360). He was a true Renaissance man blessed with gifts, reformed faithful and righteous. When he was 26 he wrote an unmatched work, the Tragiques partly an epic, a satire, and a mystic poem towering over the whole literary production of its time.
At the turn of the century Olivier de Serres (1539-1619), an early hardcore ecologist, contributed to human sciences with his treatise entitled Théatre d’agriculture et mesnage des champs (Agricultural organisation and management of the fields).
The 17th century was the time of the Edict of Nantes an its Revocation
Three renowned diarists marked the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17 century, namely François de la Noue (1531-1591) a great captain who described the events he took part in and drew a moral message from them in his Discours politiques et militaries (Political and military speeches) ; Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully (1560-1641) a companion and minister of Henri IV whose memories were entitled Economie royale (Royal economy) ; and Henri de Rohan, a general and leader of the protestant party after the Admiral de Coligny.
Among the diarists Gédéon Tallement des Réaux (1619-1690) should be mentioned for his Historiettes (small stories) which are colourful and truthful accounts of the society of his time told by a gifted storyteller.
As the Revocation and the persecutions drew nearer, the rare publications of the protestants became fewer and stifled.
The 18th century
After the Revocation and throughout the 18th century, the protestant influence came from Refuge countries.
Printed in the Netherlands dissident literature was smuggled into France. The two main authors were Pierre Jurieu (1637-1713) and Pierre Bayle (1647-1706). Pierre Jurieu was a defender of the rights of nations and was best known for his Lettres pastoraels aux fidèles qui gémisent sous la captivité de Babylone (1686-1689) (Pastoral letters to the faithful who moan in Babylon’s captivity). Pierre Bayle, a theologian and philosopher, is known for his fight for freedom of thought and against intolerance and dogmatism. He was the author of the well-known Dictionnaire historique et critique (1696-1697) (historical and critical dictionary) that led the way to the philosophy of Enlightment.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was born in Geneva of Huguenot ancestry and raised as a Huguenot, and was a typical protestant thinker. His main religious convictions can be found in his Profession de foi du vicaire Savoyard (The Savoyard vicar’s profession of faith), Volume IV of the Emile, in which he advocates heart felt religion. In the Lettres écrites de la montagne (letters written in the mountain), he initiated the notion of free enquiry, so dear to protestant specificity.
The 19th century
At the end of the 18th century two personalities, namely Germaine de Staël (1766-1817) and Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) expressed in their political message the Calvinist respect for individual freedom and advocated resistance to absolute power. Adolphe, the hero of Benjamin Constant’s well-known novel professes a kind of clear-sightedness and virtue attributable to his creator’s protestant education.
Fançois Guizot (1787-1874), a politician and historian, should also be mentioned as a defender of a liberal monarchical system. He was mainly known for the law on freedom and the organisation of primary education passed thanks to him (loi Guizot, 1833).
The 20th century
The 20th century abounded in writers influenced by their protestant education or claiming kinship to the reformed faith. It would be impossible to list them all here, but let us mention Pierre Loti (1850-1923) and Jacques Chardonne (1884-1968).
André Gide (1869-1951) brought up in the protestant faith, was one of the major writers in the first half of the century. In a number of his novels and essays unfailing traces of Calvinism are present.
Along with the writer Jean Sclumberger (1877-1968), Guizot’s great grandson, Gide founded the Nouvelle Revue Française (New French Magazine).
Among the many philosophers, historians, contemporary novelists, we should mention André Chamson (1900-1983) whose novels are characterised by warm-heartedness and strength ; Roland Barthes (1915-1980) a reviewer and semiologist deeply influenced the trends of thought and literary criticism ; and finally the philosopher and great Christian thinker Paul-Ricoeur (1913-2005).
Guillaume Du Bartas (1544-1590)
Du Bartas was a diplomat, a poet, and a fervent Calvinist.
Jean de Sponde (1557-1595)
Jean de Sponde was a politician and a well-known baroque poet. His entire life was influenced by the wars of religion : « Je sens dedans mon âme une guerre civile ». (I feel a civil war within my soul)
Clément Marot (1496-1544)
The famous 16th century French poet put into verse the biblical Psalms that were to be sung all over France and become the well-known Huguenot Psalter.
Agrippa d'Aubigné (1552-1630)
A soldier and Protestant writer, he first took part in the wars of religion with Henri de Navarre and later told of the sufferings endured by the Protestants in his work Les Tragiques.
Olivier de Serres (1539-1619)
He dealt with agriculture as with a science.
François de La Noue (1531-1591)
François de La Noue, known as « Iron arm », was a Huguenot gentleman, a well-known military chief as well as a historian of the wars of religion.
Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux (1619-1692)
Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux was a protestant writer and his work consisted of social satire and anecdotes. Unfortunately, it was considered to be somewhat scurrilous and was only really recognized in the middle of the XIX century. In his private life, he shared with other believers the terrible suffering inflicted on protestants in the years leading up to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Pierre Jurieu (1637-1713)
Pierre Jurieu was a pastor of the “refuge” and defended the rights of the people in the kingdom of Louis XIV.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an Enlightenment philosopher who cared deeply about justice. He was passionately involved in defending his ideas and often felt misunderstood. In his work he claimed that, to live together in the harmony inspired by Nature’s beauty, with a total respect of one’s neighbour even if he seemed to have different values and ideas to oneself, great willpower was necessary and one had to constantly take into account the contradictions inherent in present day civil society.
Germaine de Staël (1766-1817)
Germaine de Staël was a major figure of the pre-romantic period and was herself already a true romantic in outlook. Due to her political standpoint she had to flee several times to her father’s manor in Coppet, near Geneva and to several other towns in Europe. One can find a historical account of the ideas influencing society between 1780 and 1817 in her works.
Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (1767-1830)
Religious historian, scholar, moralist, literary critic, writer, but also political theoretician and committed politician , an impressively active intellectual, Benjamin Constant tried to achieve a definitely liberal synthesis between the upheaval inherited from the French Revolution and the 19th century world.
François Guizot (1787-1874)
The life of François Guizot spans practically the whole of the XIXth century. He was born into a Protestant family on October 4, 1787 – during the Ancien Régime – and he died on September 12, 1874, as Third Republic was being establishment. He marked his century as an intellectual and as a man of action. The great thinker of French political liberalism, Guizot was to be both the philosopher of representative government and the great organizer of the July Monarchy. His law on Primary Education established the bases of the French school system. A tireless worker, he left behind him a significant work in print and a considerable amount of letters.
Pierre Loti (1850-1923)
Pierre Loti, whose real name was Julien Viaud, was a naval officer and a writer. His mother was a faithful follower of the reformed faith and she saw to it that her son was brought up with the same beliefs. Indeed, Pierre Loti always held onto his faith. He lived a full life, travelling all over the world and was lucky enough to have his literary works widely recognized before his death.
In the house where he was born in Rochefort, which has now become a local museum, we can see some of his personal possessions. These enable us to relive his adventures and dreams.
André Gide (1869-1951)
André Gide was one of the most well-known writers of the first half of the XXth century. He was born into a protestant family and was brought up in an austere manner – he was a prolific writer and these values were apparent in his work : indeed he was continually torn between the desire for happiness and a dark obsession with sin.
Paul Ricœur (1913-2005)
Paul Ricoeur considered himself to be a philosopher by profession and Christian in his religion. He was thought to be one of the greatest post-war French thinkers. Ricoeur lived a peaceful life, far from the limelight of the media, a man whose thinking led to positive action. Through « the conflict of interpretations », he sought a fragile balance between the wisdom of compromise and the love of one’s neighbour.
Literature in the 16th century
The powerful renewing social and spiritual movement presented by the Reformation could not fail to mark contemporary literature: prestigious names testified of this. A wide range of genres were influenced by it.
La littérature des protestants au XVIIe siècle
Au XVIIe siècle, à la suite de l’Édit de Nantes (1598) qui accorde aux protestants le droit de cité en France, les œuvres littéraires émanant d’écrivains protestants sont surtout des écrits théologiques ou philosophiques.
La littérature des protestants au XVIIIe siècle
Le XVIIIe siècle est celui où le protestantisme n’a pu s’exprimer ouvertement en France, au cours de la période qui va de la révocation de l’édit de Nantes (1685) à l’édit de tolérance de 1787.
La littérature des protestants au XXe siècle
Le XXe siècle est riche d’écrivains marqués par leur éducation protestante ou qui témoignent dans leur œuvre de leur attachement à la foi réformée.