The July monarchy (1830-1848)
Generally speaking, Protestants had no difficulty accepting the July Monarchy ; it began to consider them as ordinary citizens, since Roman Catholicism had once more become the « religion of the majority of French people » and was no longer the « State religion ». The Protestant François Guizot was to be the most prominent political personality of the time.
Louis-Philippe agreed to his children marrying Protestants...
Protestants trusted the head of the new dynasty : it was said that he had attended Protestant church services in Switzerland, that he had met Jean Monod, pastor of the French community in Copenhagen, and that his best friend had been a Protestant, Louis de Chabot-Jarnac. This favourable impression was confirmed by the immediate rallying of Guizot, Cuvier and Benjamin Constant.
The fact that three of King Louis-Philippe’s children married Protestants resulted in the royal family’s real popularity amongst the latter. His eldest daughter, Louise, married the new king of the Belgians, Léopold I of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a Lutheran ; their children, however, had to be brought up as Catholics. After the civil ceremony and the Catholic wedding, another ceremony was held that satisfied the « Protestant subjects » (it was, in fact, a fairly lustreless ceremony, no more than a simple family service). In 1837 Marie, the king’s second daughter likewise married a Lutheran : Alexander, Duke of Wurttemberg. And Ferdinand-Philippe, Duke of Orleans and heir to the throne, married a Protestant, Helen de Mecklenburg-Schwerin ; the latter remained Protestant and regularly attended Lutheran church services. « The Bible was found in the royal dwellings, alongside the missal ».
...and associated Protestants to political life
Several Protestants actively participated in political life : chiefly Guizot, but also Agénor de Gasparin, Claramond Pelet de la Lozère and Léon de Maleville. In 1847, 17 Peers of France were Reformed Protestants.
The Education policy and the fairly liberal trend of the regime suited the majority of Protestants, especially the middle-class who held most of the power via the tax-based voting system. At this stage, the new social aspect of Protestantism began to flourish, with its businessmen and bankers in Paris, Nîmes and Alsace.
Moreover – and this element was to be greatly appreciated by Protestants – the July Monarchy favoured religious equality, leaving protestant evangelists free to hold religious meetings in towns where no Protestant community existed. Local authorities, who rarely went beyond respecting the simplest forms of tolerance, often refused their authorization, but an appeal to the central authorities was usually enough to ensure respect of religious equality. New converts, formerly of Roman Catholic obedience, came to Protestantism by the influence of prominent figures of XIXth century evangelization, (such as Napoléon Roussel, Léon Pilatte, and François Puaux).
The Protestants and French political life in the 19th centuryThe French Revolution enabled the Protestants to be reinserted into political life and the administration. The vitality of the Protestant community was evident throughout the19th century, especially with two highlights:...
Protestant evangelizationFor French Protestants, the nineteenth century represented the period of “reintegration” or “rebirth”. After more than a century-long ban, everything or nearly everything had to be rebuilt. The Concordat rule...
François Puaux (1806-1895)
Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (1767-1830)Religious historian, scholar, moralist, literary critic, writer, but also political theoretician and committed politician , an impressively active intellectual, Benjamin Constant tried to achieve a definitely liberal synthesis between the...
The Second EmpireThe Protestant attitude towards Louis-Napoléon and the Second Empire was ambiguous. Generally speaking, the regime seemed too authoritarian and clerical, at least in its early years. Nevertheless it relaxed the...
François Guizot (1787-1874)The life of François Guizot spans practically the whole of the XIXth century. He was born into a Protestant family on October 4, 1787 – during the Ancien Régime – and he died on...
The EmpireGenerally speaking, Protestants were in favour of the Revolution : it had granted them religious freedom and equality of civil rights. As a result, they had no difficulty in accepting first...
The Restoration (1814-1830)The Constitution of 1814 had its ambiguities ; on the one hand, it guaranteed State protection of all denominations, yet it also declared Roman Catholicism to be « the State religion ». The...