Erasmus and Luther
Erasmus (1467-1536) was a few years older than Luther (1483-1546). The former became a humanist by reading and by travelling a lot to Oxford, Paris and Bologna among other places. He had critical views on Catholic theologians: being trained in scholasticism did not entitle them to define good deeds – necessary to guarantee the salvation of the soul. That is why he became interested in Luther’s writings on the selling of indulgences, and was opposed as well to “soul trafficking”.
As for Luther, he read very attentively the scholarly edition of the New Testament Erasmus proposed in 1517. The translation of the Greek text into Latin the humanist also proposed seemed very right to him.
Despite their common views, Erasmus progressively retreated from the Lutheran circle of influence. The painter Albrecht Dürer wrote to him after Luther’s abduction, upon leaving the diet of Worms in 1521, asking him to speak to the civil and religious authorities so that he could be liberated, Erasmus did and said nothing.
Later on a controversy about how much liberty men were allowed opposed Erasmus to Luther.
A controversy about salvation through good deeds
In 1523, shortly before he died, Pope Adrian VI and a friend of Erasmus, asked him to confirm that his opinion on “salvation through good deeds” agreed with that of the Catholic Church. Erasmus wrote On Free Will in 1524, which was not even read by the commissioner, but by his successor Clement VII who was more hostile towards Luther than Adrian VI. Luther immediately answered in a strongly polemical text entitled On the bondage of the Will.
Erasmus’s opinion on salvation through good deeds was rather subtle: he considered that if good deeds opened the way to personal salvation, it all relied on the free will (freedom of choice) of the one who achieved them.
Luther considered that thanks to his willpower, as well meaning as that could be, man could certainly act, but that had nothing to do with his personal salvation (bondage); his belief alone in justification through God’s grace in Christ guaranteed this promise. The free commitment (the freedom of the christian) was then the context in which his action (and the ensuing deeds) was totally relevant.
The two opinions were closer than they seemed: for Erasmus the willpower cannot ignore piety and faith. He did not draw all the consequences because his concern was to remain within the Catholic Church, hoping to contribute to opening up the church.
Erasmus was one of the main figures of 16th century Humanism ; he was cultured, tolerant and ahead of his time because he was European in outlook. He prepared the first critical edition of the New Testament in Greek, which appeared in 1516.
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Martin Luther’s theology is based on the Bible and not on dogmas. Referring to Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, he claims that salvation is given through God’s grace and not through deeds. It was adopted by Lutheran Churches, and also by the other Reformed Churches, in principle.
Martin Luther and public life
Luther’s teaching, writings and sermons were widely distributed. After his 95 theses had been posted, and he was condemned by the Pope as a theologian, many of his fellow citizens decided to follow him: knights, peasants or bourgeois. These first Lutherans saw him as a prophesying individual, and looked for his support in their various conflicts.
Martin Luther and the Lutheran Reformation
Martin Luther, a german augustin monk, questioned the dogma of salvation through deeds. He was condemned by Pope Leon X, and started the extensive movement of religious reform of the 16th century in which Protestantism originated.
Martin Luther, his theology
Luther founded his theology on the Bible and more specifically on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans, as far as salvation through God’s grace and not through one’s deeds was concerned. His theology was the basis of the protestant Reformation. Lutheran Churches, but other protestant Churches also embraced it and its principles.
Martin Luther, translator of the Bible
As early as 1517 Martin Luther started translating the Psalms into German. In 1521, when he was imprisoned in Wartburg, he set about translating the New Testament. This great undertaking was an immediate success. Martin Luther continued with his translation of the books of the Old Testament. The translation of the whole Bible was completed in 1534. This version, though it has been revised, is still used in German speaking countries.
500 years ago… Luther posted his 95 theses!
According to tradition, in 1517, Martin Luther displayed 95 theses on the doors of the chapel of the castle of Wittenberg. The idea was to start a theological controversy on the legitimacy of the trade of “indulgences”, then very active as money had to be found to build the dome of Saint Peter Cathedral in Rome. The impact was far greater than anticipated. The posting of the these became the founding event of the Protestant Reformation the 50th anniversary of which is celebrated in 2017.