Asserting Protestant identity
It was with Napoleon’s Concordat that he Protestant Churches were once more recognized in France. A consistorial organization was imposed upon them but, though quite familiar to the Lutherans, was not well adapted to such Reformed traditions as had survived in exile. Nor was this form of organization adapted to the idea the Protestant Church had of its own mission. The Protestant Church did not wish to take initiatives that might be too tightly controlled by the State.
It was with the support of the Protestant Churches in Geneva, England, and Germany the Protestant Church regained its own proper identity alongside both the Catholic Church and the State. These Churches provided the means and the tools necessary for a theological and dogmatic “Revival”. From there on, the French Protestant church began to exercise its freedom of action in various practical fields.
There were soon to be an increasing number of statesmen amongst the Protestants, and these aimed at applying the essential principles of Protestant education. However the Church’s role could not be defined by the State. This is why Protestants strove to create all sorts of societies throughout the nineteenth century, most of which were recognized as non-profit-making and remained free to define their activity. No fewer than 236 service organisations of local or general interest were set up, ranging from the first Bible Society (1811) whose aim was to provide congregations with sufficient Bibles, to the Pastoral Cycling Association (1891) responsible for evangelising remote areas. Likewise the John Bost Hostels, and an institution for the deaf, old peoples’ homes and associations to bring relief to pastors’ widows, etc. All these service organisations were meant to give the image of a free and multi-denominational Protestantism in a not so open society. As a matter of fact, the July Monarchy era was more favourable to such activities than the second Napoleonic Empire. It was under the Third Republic that things became far easier.
Many service organisations started in the nineteenth century kept growing and developed throughout the twentieth century. Efforts were constantly made to modernize them and thus keep up with the needs of current times.
The practice of the Christian faith was honoured by these service organisations founded by Protestants whose names are still remembered today (Monod, Mallet, Vermeil, Hottenguer, Schlumberger, Boissonnas, Bœgner, Bost, etc., families of pastors but likewise of bankers, scholars, and industrialists).
The Protestant definition of "service"
“We – and perhaps more so than others – are well aware of the value inherent to the very principles of freely consented associations. Such associations are capable of uniting the different forces necessary for the vocational training so useful to charity organisations or to any other sort of work. We resort to all human means that advocate caution and common sense. But we must acknowledge that without the Gospel we would remain helpless when faced with evil, whatever be its form. Without the Gospel, what comfort is there for the sick, what peace for the distressed, what consideration for the poor, what light for those with a troubled conscience, what lifting help to those who have fallen, what example for the children we must steer through life, what renewal for the elderly who feel their strength dwindle and life slip away ? The results we are seeking may not always be fully appreciated in this world”.
(Dictionnaire des Oeuvres protestantes, p. 184, note by S.Monod)
The different kinds of service organisations
Besides the major service organisations, (such as missions or pastoral, charity and educational services), others were more specifically linked either to the Revival Movement or to liberal theological trends. Many were ecumenically orientated, and as such, open to the various Protestant denominations.
The French Concordat
The Concordat with the Organic Articles, ruled the organisation of Protestant as well as Catholic churches. It did not comprise any restrictive measures, and pastors were to be paid by the State for the first time. But the Concordat only applied to « consistorial » churches comprising 6,000 members, and not to « local » churches, better suited to the scattered Protestant community. But foremost it ignored the national synod, the traditional central authority of the Protestant church, the only body which could settle problems.
The 19th century revival movement took shape within the context of romanticism. Its piety is of a more existential and sentimental nature, a piety « revived » when compared to a faith considered dull and routine-like.
The Reformation required that every believer should be capable of reading the Bible. One of the main concerns of the leaders of re-established the Protestant Church was to make this possible. Implementing such a project met some opposition.
Missionary work started by the French Protestants in the nineteenth century was divided into two categories : the one targeting non-Christian people and thus more or less related to French colonial expansion, and the other aiming at evangelization within France itself.
The missionary movement
The missionary fervour of the Protestant Church arose in the nineteenth century. The first mission was in a country under the British rule and later on in countries that were both under British and French rule. At the end of the nineteenth century, Protestant missionaries were active in seven different areas, in Africa and the Pacific.
The history nineteenth century education is known for the profound changes in its government organization ; and these changes affected the influence it had. Fundamental laws went into effect and new teaching methods were implemented, many of which had been thought over in the eighteenth century. Protestants were involved in those changes as they had their own specific requirements with regards to education.
The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army, which was born and created in England, settled in France in 1881. Its aims were to evangelize and to provide the lower classes with social help.
The faculties of theology in the 19th century
In 19th century France, Lutheran and Reformed pastors under the Concordat rule were trained in two State-recognized faculties of theology.