Marguerite d’Angoulême and the beginnings of the Reformation
Historiography stresses the princely origins of the Reformation in the Béarn, Navarre, Bigorre, Albret and other territories which were all linked to the Crown of Navarre. Marguerite d’Angoulême, the sister of King Francis I and the wife of Henri II d’Albret, king of Navarre, who promoted evangelical ideas, played an undeniable role. She supported Gérard Roussel, her chaplain and former member of the Meaux Group, who was promoted to the bishopric of Oloron from 1536 to 1555. He tried to set up a pastoral and theological reformation in his diocese expecting a conciliatory solution to help distressed Catholicism. His mass in seven steps was never accepted by the Theology School in Paris but he never left the Catholic Church in spite of Calvin’s injunctions. Henri II d’Albret, who died in 1555, didn’t accept these religious novelties, but his son-in-law Antoine de Bourbon and and even more so Jeanne his daughter, were involved in promoting a reformation and helped it develop during the wars raging within France. King Henri IV born in 1553 witnessed and took part in the religious evolution of his mother. Still it should be noted that religious legislation was supported by a group of people convinced of new ideas that permeated Béarn as well as other regions, thanks to commercial but also to intellectual and family exchanges.
Jeanne d'Albret’s reign and the implementation of the Reformation
At Christmas in 1560, Jeanne d’Albret symbolically took communion, and her 1561 ordinance allowed Reformed worship in her States under a simultaneum regime. Upon her husband’s death in 1562 she reigned alone. The methods of Jean Reymond-Merlin, sent by Calvin to help her reform her States, were too harsh for her as religious peace was reinstated in France after the first war of religion, but she turned to the moderate trend inspired by Jean-Baptiste Morely and pronounced an ordinance on the freedom of belief. After 1566 she reconnected with Geneva and welcomed an emblematic character of the Reformaton, Pierre Viret, the famous Lausanne Reformer, and thus set up a Church in Béarn after the Geneva model.
The invasion of Béarn by Catholic troops
When Jeanne d’Albret held her court in la Rochelle with the Coligny and Condé, during the third war of religion, she probably dreamt of a large Reformed principality in the Aquitaine region, but Béarn was invaded in May 1569 on Charles IX’s order by the Viscount of Terride supported by Catholic noblemen from Béarn and Navarre, who were against their sovereign’s religious policy. Pierre Viret was imprisoned in Pau, and seven pastors were executed. A ‘relief’ force, requested by the Viscount of Montgomery, drove the occupants out and released the stronghold of Navarrenx, who alone had resisted.
The Church ordinances of 1571
The only war of religion in Béarn gave Jeanne d’Albret the opportunity to achieve her work of Reformation: Catholic worship was forbidden. Priests were banned and Church property was confiscated to fund the new worship. Through her Church ordinances of November 1571, Jeanne d’Albret turned Béarn into a Protestant principality ruled by the declaration of faith of La Rochelle. The institutional outcome was undoubtedly the result of the deliberations of the Court of Navarre in La Rochelle, foreshadowing the French ambitions of the Protestant party before the Saint Bartholomew massacre and the formation of the Ligue put an end to their hopes. An assembly system enabled to rule a Church without bishops, and the limits were bound by the sovereign. Confiscated Ecclesiastical property were managed by the State and used to pay pastors’ salaries, to maintain buildings and to operate the academy.
The Reformation in Béarn
Though the Reformation was of French-speaking inspiration, the local language was used to spread the new faith ; in 1853, in Orthez, pastor Arnaud de Salette published a translation of the Psalms and of the ecclesiastical prayers of Geneva into Béarn language. An innovative school in the Orthez-Lescar academy was created in 1567, and was turned into a university in 1853. It was headed by important people such as Nicolas des Gallars or Lambert Daneau and aimed at training local administrative and religious elites.
Under the reign of Henri de Navarre and of his sister Catherine de Bourbon
Pierre Viret died early in the year 1571, and Jeanne the following year. Despite the recantation of young Henri after the Saint Bartholomew massacre, Béarn remained a Protestant Principality under the regency of his sister – Catherine de Bourbon. Her finances enabled to support the wars of Henri, who had become a Protestant again in 1576. Catholicism was only temporarily reinstated in 1599 by the Edict of Fontainebleau, a counterpart of the Edict of Nantes.
Béarn joined to France and Catholicism reinstated
In 1620, Louis XIII’s military expedition commanded that Béarn be joined to France, so that Catholicism could be fully reinstated with its worship and property. In the years that followed, Béarn, whose Protestants were mainly legalists, did not take part in the wars said of M. de Rohan, though they were partly caused by these events. Giving back the Churches, used for Protestant worship until then, resulted in an unrivalled wave of temple building, probably on an absidial architectural design, as testified in a drawing of Pau’s temple or in Arthez-de-Béarn’s vestiges, fatally damaged in 1998.
Under Louis XIV’s reign
There has been talk of the Protestant experiment in Béarn being a failure. But this term should be put into perspective because, though a half-century of State support was too short for the new faith to be durably implanted in a major part of the Principality, it was still maintained mainly in the Orthez and Salies-de-Béarn district. The end of the independence also impacted the religion of the elites, who partly went along with the sovereign’s religion. Lastly, the region particularly suffered institutional persecutions earlier than in France and in an exemplary way under Louis XIV’s reign when his main instrument was the Navarre Parliament: the Edict of 1668 reduced the worship places to twenty. The number was brought down to five in 1685 ; Intendant Foucault’s dragoons, sadly renowned for their persecutions in the Poitou region, forced Churches in Béarn to collective conversion.
The period of persecutions
The significant number of departures to England or Holland showed a spirit of resistance. The beginning of the Desert was a difficult period in Béarn, and the first meetings were cruelly smitten, Claude Brousson, for instance, was arrested after a visit to Pau as he was ready to leave Oloron in 1698. He was transferred to Montpellier and beaten up on the order of Lamoignon de Bâville, Intendant of Languedoc, who had relentlessly pursued him. The Protestants in Béarn laid low and did not follow the Camisard rebellion, but anchored their resistance in family worship, supported by the strong structure of the Pyrenean Ostau. Piety was encouraged by Jean Destremeau, the former pastor of Bellocq, from Holland, and was supported by writings spread under wraps, such as copies of sermons or prayers and treatises of theology or controversy, and was renewed thanks to books sent within bundles of goods by relatives who had fled to England.
Reconstitution of the Reformed Church
The presence of a predicant, probably of the Morazvian trend, was noted late in 1740 and prompted Paul Rabaul, who rebuilt Reformed Churches in France, to send a pastor to restore Churches in the Béarn region following the pattern defined by Antoine Court at the beginning of the century. In 1755, Etienne Defferre, a native of Gallargues near Nîmes, arrived in Béarn and spectacularly performed his task over less than two years: assemblies were held in broad daylight, christenings and weddings were celebrated, consistories were created. In 1757 he was joined by Paul Journet, a native of the Cévennes region, then by Paul Marsoô, the only pastor in Béarn at the time. The community in Orthez was supported by the influential middle-class open to the Enlightenment, who pulled strings to shelter it from the pressing undertakings of the parliament of Navarre. The community regularly wrote to the Court of Gébelin to win civil recognition for the Protestants whose christenings and weddings were not acknowledged.
The period however was not shadowless. The Protestant Revival incurred the wrath of the local clergy which prompted the civil authorities to great waves of repression in 1758, 1760-1762, 1766-1767. On the basis of an agreement with the Intendant in 1767, the Protestants in Béarn switched from too showy assemblies to meetings in barns. They were quickly turned into Houses of Prayer which caused the last Dragonnade in 1778, the last to be inflicted in France. The glorious times however showed a decline in the community, incapable of proselytising and contaminated by ambient Malthusianism. Lastly, Protestantism was divided into two trends that announced the doctrinal discrepancies of the following century. A more urban trend, based on Enlightenment and Freemasonry, was represented by pastor Louis-Victor Gabriac who arrived in 1784 and was opposed to a more rural and more traditional evangelical piety, embodied by Paul Marsoô who was forbidden to practice his ministry in 1805, when the Consistorial in Orthez was created.
The first temple rebuilt in Orthez in 1790
The Edict of 1787 got a mixed reception, but the Revolution was embraced with enthusiasm and enabled Orthez to have the first rebuilt temple in France, dedicated on 25 November 1790. The façade bore the text ‘temple dedicated to Evangelical Christian worship’. In 1793, however, the Church was disorganised and turned into stables, as the Protestants in Béarn fell back on family worship.
Napoleon I reinstated Protestantism with equal freedom as Catholicism and Judaism in Organic Articles, a decree of Germinal year X. Though pastors were paid by the State, national Synods were abolished. Thus, after being illegal and then stifled by the Terror, the almost 5,000 Protestants formed the Consistorial Church in Orthez, that ruled over the district.
Protestantism in Béarn in the 19th century
Protestantism in Béarn in the 19th century was characterised, on the one hand by its exuberant forms, and on the other by the exodus of its members, and lastly by its ‘Works’. In Béarn, more than anywhere else, one should talk about Protestantism in the plural: firstly, the Revival marked by the Calvinist tradition led by Henri Pyt in Bayonne (1820), born in the Vaud district, by Jacques Reclus in Orthez (1830), and by J.-L. Buscarlet in Pau (1850), secondly the heirloom of the difficult years marked by Enlightenment that slowly spread with difficulty to reintegrate the religious landscape, opposed by muffled but very efficient anti-Protestantism led by the Bishop of Bayonne. We should not forget that the English and Scottish Anglicans and Presbyterians were well established since the end of the Napoleonic wars. In the mid-century, they were far more numerous than the French Protestants. Finally one should mention the Darbyst group that eroded the fringes of Librism in the years 1850. N. Darby who had probably created his Church in Pau advocated a more equal organisation, without a pastor. He may have convinced part of the community who had lived that way, especially in the countryside, throughout the Desert period.
The Protestant people in Béarn were seriously disrupted by rural exodus in its majority group. Between 1880 and 1890, 10% migrated to the Plate States, or simply to Orthez, Pau, Bordeaux, or Paris. The few late and rare marriages increased the phenomenon. The Protestant urban population, on the contrary, notably grew with descendents of the Huguenots, with Alsatian Protestants who made their way back after 1870, with new Protestants from a neglected Catholic population with sick people from everywhere, and with leading pastors who had strong personalities. Such were Alphonse Cadier, the stubborn and vigilant restorer of the parish in Pau, Emilien Frossard in Tarbes and Jacques Reclus, in the Pyrenean health resorts, a tormented and uncompromising pastor of the Librist trend, but also Félix Pécaud, the founder of secular ethics and of the National Education. In fact, ‘Charities’ rallied and bonded the Protestant people of all trends. 23 temples were erected from 1813 to 1906 ; schools were opened in Pau, Orthez, Bellocq, Sauveterre, and Osse-en-Aspe before secular schools were opened. As early as 1859, youth movements, such as UCJG (Young Men’s Christian Association, UCJF (Young Women’s Christian Association) in the countryside or Scouts in Pau, stimulated teenagers, Catholic ones too.
Still for educational purposes, the Béarn Protestant newspaper was launched in 1882, and in 1899 pastor Jean Roth created the Avant-Garde (Forefront) paving the way for social Christianity. Parish libraries multiplied and were open until 10:00 pm.
Evangelisation and mission in Béarn
The third common front was evangelisation and missions. In 1850 the Society of Evangelisation in Béarn was founded and worked with the Gypsy and Jewish populations in the Landes and Basque regions. The free Church was interested in the Aragon people of the Pau area with pastors Malan and Pozzi. A specific committee to evangelise the Spaniards was in charge of the pastor in Madrid, and sent help to missions in Mahon and Oran. Joseph Nogaret, pastor in Bayonne, was responsible for the missionary work of Manuel Matamoros and created a Spanish Evangelist school in 1855. Eugène Casalis of Araujuzon left for Lesotho in 1832.
The law of 1905 in Béarn
The law called of Separation of the Church and the State of December 1905, and the creation of religious associations, inaugurated the 20th century. But, on the one hand the common action of all the Protestants in ‘Charities’ bound the community, and on the other hand as most of the religious patrimony had already been built, making Protestant schools irrelevant -because of the communal system – the religious association system was well received. At the same time evangelising efforts were better organised: Oloron became its centre in 1908; with Albert Cadier and his successor Jacques Delpech, who created the French Mission of Upper Aragon. Though the missionary activity in Spain was hampered by the civil war between 1936 and 1939, Jacques Delpech continued his action in Geneva and members of the CIMADE worked in the camp in Gurs and saved Spaniards and Jews from extermination camps.
Anglo-Saxons became fewer in Béarn
WWI disorganised the Anglican and Presbyterian presence, which had notably increased in the second half of the 19th century and had left a noteworthy mark on the urban space with a lot of buildings in Pau, Bayonne, Biarritz, Anglet et Cauterets. All trends were present, i.e. the Presbyterian Scotts theologically closer to the French Protestants and all the Anglican undertones from Low Church to High Church, and even the Oxford trend of English Catholics. In 1992 Christ Church was united to the only French community – presently the Church on rue Serviez . WWII marked the final departures and Saint Andrew in Pau still is the only worship place.
Protestantism in Béarn in the late 20th century
After 1945 Protestant Churches faced new problems, such as decline in worship attendance, exodus of young adults to university campuses despite the creation of a university in 1968 – which did not allow good supervision of youth. The community became two-faced the traditional Huguenot basic people being mixed with transitional people, notably attracted to oil industry. The community created a retirement home and a Meeting Centre on Saragose avenue in Pau. For about twenty years the latter housed cultural, religious, political very fruitful debates for the whole population in the capital of Béarn. It also made sure to keep the cultural and patrimonial identity by creating a Study Centre in Pau in 1987, a historic association with its headquarters in the departmental Archives that collected Protestant documents from the 16th century on, previously preserved in the Churches or in families. Then, in 1995, the Centre was moved to Orthez, in the Jeanne d’Albret Museum of the history of Protestantism in Béarn.
Author: After Suzanne Tucoo-Chala and Philippe Chareyre