The father of modern surgery
Paré was born near Laval around 1509. After his apprenticeship in Angers and later in Paris, he continued his training at the Hotel Dieu hospital for three years and became master surgeon-barber in 1536. He enrolled as a surgeon in the Piedmont army and later aligned himself with vicomte de Rohan.
In 1552, he was appointed ordinary surgeon to King Henri II. He returned to the army and was taken prisoner by the Duke of Savoie.
He failed to save Henri II
After his release, he could not save Henri II who, in1559, had been fatally injured in a tournament. He remained the official surgeon for the kings that followed.
In 1572, when at Admiral de Coligny’s bedside, he narrowly escaped the Saint Barthelemy massacre.
Ambroise Paré is seen as the father of modern surgery and one of the pioneers of experimental science. He replaced the post-amputation practice of cauterisation with a red-hot iron by the ligature of arteries. He is the author of numerous treatises on surgery and medicine such as “The treatment of head wounds and fractures” “Méthode curative des plaies et fractures de la tête”) (Paris 1562), and “A treatise on the plague, smallpox and measles, along with a brief description of leprosy” (“Traité de la peste, de la petite vérole et de la rougeole avec une brève description de la lèpre”) (Paris 1568).
Gaspard de Coligny (1519-1572)
Gaspard de Coligny born in the influential Châtillon family, was naturally at the service of the King of France. However, after being made prisoner at the siege of Saint Quentin, he converted to the Reformation, then became one of the military commanders of the Protestant party, and fought against the Crown and the Guise. He was murdered during the Saint Bartholomew massacre in 1572.
St. Bartholomew's Day (24th August 1572)
Charles IX had tried to reconcile the two religious parties, but when this failed, he was driven by the Guise family to authorize the Catholics to assassinate the Protestant leaders; the situation degenerated into a massive massacre.
Jeanne d'Albret (1528-1572)
She became a convert of Protestantism and made it the official religion in her kingdom of Navarre.
Introduction to the Reform in the 16th century
The aim of this tour is to present the main events and figures of the early stages of French Protestantism: from Jean Calvin, to Henri IV, including Clément Marot and Ambroise Paré. It reveals the expansion of Protestantism in France up to the Wars of Religion that shattered the Kingdom at the end of the 16th century.